Pender Islands' Time Line

Modern/Recent

2017      Major redevelopment of Port Browning Marina Resort begins

              Shaw introduces digital only television service in March

2016      Port Washington General Store demolished

              Premiere of Pender's public bus     

2015     The Pender Islands Museum celebrates it's 10th anniversary of opening at Roesland in the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve.

2014     For the first time the Museum hires a summer student with the assistance of the federally funded Young Canada Works program.  The purpose of the project is to start cataloging and digitizing the Museum's collection of artifacts, documents and photographs.  The ever increasing catalogue can be viewed here:  Pender Islands Museum catalogued collection of artifacts

             Ursula Poepel is awarded the honour of life membership in the Pender Islands Museum Society for her many years of volunteer involvement, especially as Treasurer of the society.

2013     Automated external defibrillators (AED's) are installed in high traffic areas around the island in August with Nu-to-Yu funding           

            Shingle Bay property aquired by Gulf Islands National Park Reserve below Roe Lake.

2012    Pender Islands Public Library re-opens July 3 after major six month long upgrade, 22 years after initial opening in 1990.  Marjorie Bailey, one of the founding members of the Pender Library (1973), passes away in August at age 101.

            Shaw Cable largely completes introduction of high speed internet service and HD TV programming to South Pender

2011    Canada Census indicates a population on North Pender of 2,035 residents and on South Pender 201 residents for a total of 2,236.

            Pender Islands Museum website launched

            Elizabeth May elected as first Green Party MP in House of Commons, represents Saanich-Gulf Islands. Re-elected in 2015.

2010    Final parcel of Brook's Point aquired through 2013 when fundraising finalized

            New shingle roof put on the museum in October           

2009    Pender Islands Health Care Centre expansion and renovation opens.  Click here for a history of the PIHCC.

2007    In January Shaw Communications announces takeover of Pender Island Cable TV and Internet owned by Mascon Communications Corp.

            Provincial government settlement includes hunting and fishing rights to Tsawwassen First Nation around Pender Island

            First Aboriginal Lieutenant Governor of B.C. appointed

2006   The Pender Islands Handbook is first published by Richard Fox. The 400-page book is the first comprehensive guidebook covering the Pender Islands.

           Carolyn Elliott becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

2005    Pender Islands Museum building opens at the site of the old Roe House at Roesland in the GINPR

            B.C. Provincial Disc Golf Tournament returns to Pender with over 100 discers competing.

            Currents, a vacation home development is completed at Otter Bay Marina in what was known in the early days as Hayashi Cove

            Morning Bay Vineyard, now the Sea Star Vineyards and Farm Estate, opens as the Pender's first winery.

            Lorretta's Wood parcel joins GINPR

2004    Hope Bay Centre re-opens with a restaurant, shops, gallery, services and offices

            Poets Cove Resort opens on South Pender

            Greenburn Lake and adjacent properties on South Pender aquired for GINPR

2003    Establishment of the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve (GINPR), Canada's 40th National Park is created, which includes Mount Norman (formerly Capital Regional District (CRD) park, Beaumont Marine Park, and Prior Centennial Campground (formerly BC Parks), Pacific Marine Legacy Lands at Roe Lake and Roesland, a portion of Mount Menzies, and Princess Margaret Island, now restored in name to Portland Island, south west of Pender Island.

            "Hope Bay Rising Holdings Ltd.", a group of islanders aquire the Hope Bay Store property and complete the rebuilding of the current complex

2002    Bedwell Harbour Resort on South Pender Island is closed and demolished.  Poets Cove Resort begins construction in its place.

            Parks Canada offers the Robert Roe family home at Roesland to the Museum Society for use as the Pender Islands Museum on the condition that the Society bring the building up to standards required for public use.  Shortly thereafter, the Bert Roe house further up the driveway is declared beyond restoration and demolished

2001    First "Customer Appreciation Night" at the Tru Value Foods grocery store located at the Driftwood Centre, usually held mid-week toward the end of November

2000    New Pender Island Community Hall opens

            100 year time capsule installed at Pender Cemetery by the Museum Society with 106 sponsors to be opened July 1st, 2100

            New Tru Value Foods opens at the Driftwood Centre

            Brooks Point on South Pender aquired by CRD as a conservation area.  Gowlland Point parcel purchased by CRD for future regional park.

1998    Hope Bay Store complex destroyed by fire in the early hours of Sunday, February 23rd.

            Draft of Nisga'a Treaty signed, first treaty in 100 years

1997    The Davidsons sell Roesland to the Pacific Marine Heritage Legacy Lands program, later to form part of the Gulf Islands National Park Reserve

1996    St. Peter's Anglican Church, built in 1915, moved to larger parcel on Canal Road where there was room for a church hall and parking

            Amid some small controversy, a relay tower is erected at the top of North Pender to extend cell phone use

1995    Medicine Beach property aquired by Islands Trust and Pender Islands Conservancy Association (PICA)

1994    Tru Value Foods opens at the Driftwood Centre where the present pharmacy is located

            Newcomers Club is created to aquaint ladies new to the island to elements of island life, and to meet new friends

            The book Winifred Grey, ed. Marie Elliot is published         

            Sharon MacDonald becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

1993    Renowned sculptor of historical figures usually on horseback, Ralph Sketch, dies tragically in house fire.  Ralph chose N. Pender as his home in 1967.

            More Tales from the Outer Gulf Islands is published by the Gulf Islands Branch of the B.C. Historical Federation

1992    Ferry Queen of Cumberland built

            After 100 years, Old Orchard Farmhouse (Washington Grimmer, 1891) at Port Washington is extensively rebuilt with historic sensitivity

1991    Roesland Farm Resort with up to 17 guest cabins closes after 72 years of operation

            Election of Rita Johnston, first woman premier in Canadian history

1990    New library building designed by Architect John Roberts opens at Auchterlonie Centre

            Irene Roe, wife of Bert dies

            Islands Trust Fund created to protect natural habitat on Gulf Islands

1989    Pender Island Recycling Society (PIRS) created after CRD proposal for a waste transfer station is defeated.  Land is leased for a drop off depot at $1/year from June and Max Allan.  PIRS later buys the property from the Allans for one half the market value. 

            Brackett Family Reunion

            In August, the Pender Post transitions from typewriter and manual layout to computer word processing and page layout.

            9-1-1 Emergency Response Telephone System activated on the Outer Gulf Islands

            A brainstorming meeting or Charette is held in November to come up with ideas for a Magic Lake Activity Centre to be located east of the tennis courts.  A "Pilot Plan" was laid out to possibly include lawn bowling, croquet, horseshoes, a jogging track, exercise stations, picnic area, children's playground, bandstand and even a community building.  The site proposed then is today a level, grassy multipurpose public area.

1988    Howard Harris house at Hope Bay demolished (date uncertain)

            The Official Community Plan adopted in 1978 is amended to allow a dominant commercial centre on the island.  The present Driftwood Centre is the result.  Construction begins on the "new modern design" centre including a relocated automobile service station.

            Mount Norman Regional Park (CRD) created, first on Gulf Islands

1987    Port Washington Store ceases operation as a general store

            Dr. Don Williams signs on as full time medical doctor to the Penders on July 1st.

            Portlock Point light station on Prevost Island, across the channel from Port Washington, is reconstructed on a point adjacent to the location of the original station, contructed in 1895.

1986    Former ferry "Cy Peck", built at Seattle in 1913, now derelict, sinks in shallow water in Nanaimo harbour and is written off.  The wheel house superstructure is salvaged and displayed on a dock in Ganges

            The Pender Islands Museum Society formed with the objective of establishing a museum and collecting historical artifacts

1985    The B.C. Provincial Disc Golf Tournament was held on Pender and in 2005 the Provincials returned to the Golf Island Disc Park.  In 1985 30 players from B.C. and Washington competed.  In 2005 over 100 discers competed.

             Logging ceases on Mount Norman

             Val Melville becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

1984     Hope Bay Store closes as a general store

1983     A joint venture of the Provincial Heritage Conservation Branch and the Simon Fraser University Archeology Faculty result in a salvage "dig" at the north end of the Canal Bridge by the faculty, staff and students of the University over the summers of 1984/85/86.  The "dig" established that the site had been occupied from the period 5000 to 2500BP (Before Present).    

             New school community hall facilities completed

            Auchterlonie Centre granted to Recreation and Agricultural Hall Association by Crown

            Government Liquor Store opens at the Driftwood Centre

1982    South Pender Fire Hall built

            W. Bill Bartlett becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

1981    Pender Island Medical Clinic officially opened by Mary Coleman, wife of Bishop Michael Coleman, at the present site on land donated by the Marler family

            Present Pender Island Golf Course Clubhouse built

            Bob Johnson becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

1980    Disc Golf park is "roughed out" by Alex Fraser, Dave Watson, and Doug Keating.  The second nine began in 1984 and by 1987 the initial course was completed.

            Clifford Brackett dies at age 105

            Gordon Berry becomes Postmaster of the Pender Island Post Office

Early 1980's   Paul Estelle dies and George Coates acquires the site of the Driftwood Centre.  George subsequently demolishes the old buildings, relocates the service station to it's current location, attracts the Tru-Valu grocery store and Pender Pharmacy with Ursula Poepel as Pharmacist to be housed in a centre newly built in 1988-'89.

Post WWll

1979    Former ferry "Cy Peck" is sold to Dale Forsberg and used as a training vessel for the Canada Sea Life College

            Dr. Don Sutherland replaces retiring Dr. Homer Rogers on condition that a new medical facility be built

            Both the Port Washington and Hope Bay Post Offices are closed and relocated to the Driftwood Centre with David A. Nance as Postmaster

1978    Pender Islands Community Plans adopted

            Howard Harris house at Hope Bay demolished

            The Pender Islands Lions Club publishes the first Pender Islands Telephone List, an idea conceived by Wally Cunliffe

1977    Victor Menzies dies shortly after his 92nd birthday

            New school on Canal Road opened and old school turned over to Recreation and Ag. Hall Assn. for community use, now the Nu-To-Yu thrift store.  The new school is also used as a community centre.

            Victor Menzies' 4x5 inch "plate" box camera purchased by him in 1902 is used for the last time at the school reunion held on August 6th.  The camera is displayed at the Museum.

            Port Washington Community Hall demolished

            Government Liquor Store opens at the Driftwood Centre

1976    Library moves to Auchterlonie Centre (Playschool building next to Nu-To-Yu)

            Islands Trust introduces zoning and official community planning to the Gulf Islands

1975    NDP ousted, Social Credit government under Bill Bennett returned to office

            Florence and Dave Davidson build their own home at Roesland, now the headquarters of the Gulf Islands National Park.  It took three years to complete.

            The United Church of Canada closes The United Community Church at Hope Bay due to declining numbers.  Operation as a non-denominational Community Church begins.

1974    Islands Trust Act proclaimed on June 5 by NDP dominated BC Legislature to control development in the Gulf Islands, inspired in part by the large 1200 plus city lot sized Magic Lake Estates subdivision.  Many heated community meetings ensue due to divided interests of natural protection vs. long-time residents desire to conduct their affairs without government interference, sometimes including subdivision of long held lands to pay for their living expenses and retirements.

             The Provincial Government purchases the southern area of the Canal Bridge in order to protect it from development.

            Otter Cove Lodge changes ownership and re-named Pender Lodge.  It housed the Eagles Nest Restaurant.

1973    North Pender Fire Protection Service established

            In November the Pender Islands Library opens under the guidance of Marjorie Bailey and with the help of an enthusiastic group of colleagues.  At this time the library was located in the back room of the Pender Island Community Church and fondly called “The Pender Lender”. In 1976, the library moved to a building on the grounds of the Auchterlonie Centre, next to the Nu-To-Yu community thrift store. This small ‘old library’ building now houses the local Youth Centre or "Epicentre".

In around 1989 a group of far-sighted individuals, led by June Hall as Chairperson, laid the groundwork for what in 1991 became the new Pender Island Public Library building. This building was designed by local architect John Roberts. The building is one of which the residents of Pender Island are, justifiably, very proud. After 20 yrs of serving the community, and with much fundraising from generous local donors, the Library underwent extensive renovations in 2012. The newly renovated space now has a large dedicated youth section, a new front desk, and a welcoming and bright interior. The library services have grown over the years, to include programs for adults and youth and digital services, and aspires to continue to meet the needs of the local community.

            The Pender Islands Lions Club, dedicated to community support by volunteers, receives its Charter on June 15 with Wally Cunliffe as first President

1972    Dave Barrett wins election with the New Democratic Party

1971    First Pender Post monthly newsletter published using a hand cranked Gestetner copier, now in the Museum.  The original copier was replaced with an electric one in 1975.

            The “Pender Island Recreation and Agricultural Hall Association” became a non-profit society in 1971. The far-sighted Association supported recreational endeavours of all kinds. Part of its objective at that time was to create a Community hall for the Pender Islands.

In the early ‘80s, the C.R.D. put $50,000 into building a full sized gym into the new school that was being built in return for community use of the gym and a ‘community room’. P.I.R.A.H.A. was the C.R.D.’s (and Pender’s) representative in the ‘Joint Use Agreement’ with the School District, for the scheduling of Pender Island’s community indoor recreation.

When the new school was completed in 1983, the Crown granted the Old School property (now the Auchterlonie Centre) to P.I.R.A.H.A. for ‘recreational purposes’. In the early ‘90s the Pender Island Library Association spearheaded the construction of Pender’s new library on this property.

Shortly after this, taking up the inspiration of Islands Trustee, Bob Allison, P.I.R.A.H.A.’s Hall Steering Committee started looking for a site for a community hall. Land was donated by Karl Hamson in the mid nineties and the community started raising money and building the hall, completing it in the year 2000.

After the ‘Joint Use Agreement’ at the school expired in a 1996 C.R.D. bylaw, P.I.R.A.H.A. continued as the agency for administering the C.R.D.’s recreational funding.

Today P.I.R.A.H.A.’s exciting mandate is to manage two properties with four buildings, used for community recreation purposes, to raise the money to run and equip the community hall, to create recreational programming and to book and organize events.

            Use of corporal punishment (strapping) ceases in British Columbia schools

            Aubrey Rundle-Woolcock moves to Pender Island with his wife Irene when he obtaines a teaching position at the Pender Island School which is a 2 room school in the building that was later to become the Nu to Yu.  He retired in 1983.

1970    Surveyor John Melvyn (Mel) Abbott dies at age 38.  Mel, after meeting Les Bowerman, bought and commenced development of Magic Lake Estates in the early '60's until it was basically completed in 1974.  Mel was from Revelstoke

            Florence and David Davidson take over the running of Roesland Farm Resort at the request of their long time friends, Bert and Irene Roe.  It takes three years for Dave to get the resort back in shape after some neglect during Bert's latter years.

            South Pender Island Post Office closes on July 7th.

Late 1960's  The Driftwood Centre starts with the opening by Paul Estelle of a Service Station at the site of the current Pharmacy.  Gas continues to be available from pumps at both the Hope Bay Store and Port Washington Store.

            Portlock Point light station on Prevost Island, across the channel from Port Washington is automated and de-staffed.

            Establishment of Otter Bay and Port Browning Marinas begin

1969    BC Government imposes 10 acre “freeze” on the Gulf Islands

            The Lynds sell Beautyrest Lodge after 27 years of operation.  New owners re-name it Otter Cove Lodge, "Your away-from-it-all paradise".

            Dr. Homer Rogers becomes Pender Islands' first regular full-time doctor operating his practice out of his house on MacKinnon Road

            Bert Roe dies at the age of 75 in October, and the operation of the Roesland farm resort is passed on to David and Florence Davidson.  Irene, Bert's wife, continued to live in the house that Bert built in the late 1920's.  Irene dies in 1990 and forgives the residual balance of the Davidson's purchase of half interest in lot 87 of Roesland, the main part of the property, by the Davidsons.  The Davidson's could not afford to purchase the land outright.

1967    Seven Pender Island pioneers each receive a Canadian Centennial Medal at a presentation by Lt. Gov. Hon. George Pearkes, Sep. 3 at Waterlea

            Victor Menzies abandons the large house at Hope Bay and moves into a small house brought over from Vancouver

            Hope Bay Community Hall, built in 1910, razed and the lumber recovered by the Hope Bay Bible Camp for a charge of $25.

            Buck Lake is excavated to bedrock in a large natural depression and dammed to create a reservoir 40 feet in depth to augment the water supply from Pender Lake, now Magic Lake to supply the development called Gulf Garden Estates, now Magic Lake Estates

            Portland Island is gifted back to the Province of British Columbia by Princess Margaret who received it nine years earlier.  It is then named Princess Margaret Island and park in her honour.

            Sidney Arthur Kent becomes Postmaster at Port Washington

1966    Ferry "Cy Peck" is sold to J.H. Todd and Sons of Vancouver and used as a supply store for West Coast fishermen

1965    Front end loading Ferry terminal built at Otter Bay stimulating surge in growth

            Ferry Mayne Queen is built

            Gulf Garden Estates, now Magic Lake Estates, begins phase two of sales extending east on Schooner Way and around Pender Lake, now Magic Lake, at prices ranging from $995. for non-waterfront lots up to $4550. for a preferred oceanfront lot.  Total lots subdivided eventually reach 1,200.

1964    Ferry "Cy Peck" falls into the hands of B.C. Ferries and put on the Tsawwassen-Gulf Islands route

            Ferry Queen of Nanaimo is built

1963    Bert and Irene Roe purchase islet in Otter Bay to store marine fuel

1962    Victor Menzies pays Ashton Ross-Smith $50. for abandoned farm house and demolishes it for lumber for the Bible Camp (1966?)

            Phase one 190 lot sales in Gulf Garden Estates begins around Boat Nook.

            Ferry "Cy Peck" is sold to the B.C. Toll Highways Authority from the Gulf Island Ferry Company to run between Swartz Bay and Fulford Harbour

            "Present (ferry) fare is $2.00 per person and $5.00 per automobile from Tsawwassen.  Swartz Bay fares are one-half" departing from and arriving at Hope Bay

1961    BC Ferry system serves the Penders

             The provincial government assumes control of Black Ball Ferries, a Canadian company.  Black Ball Transport, founded in 1951, was a U.S. based company which sailed Puget Sound.

            Elmer Bowerman donates another acre of land to extend the Cemetery to it's present size and connect it to the "Old Government Road", the current access road to the Cemetery

          The book, A Gulf Islands Patchwork, is published by the B.C. Historical Association

          Thomas Ralph Smith becomes Postmaster at Hope Bay and Walter F. Cunliffe Postmaster at Port Washington

1960    B.C. Toll Authority formed by BC Government to handle BC Ferry service.  The name changed later to B.C. Ferries Corp., a Crown Corporation.

1959    Fish reduction plant at Shingle Bay completely destroyed by fire.  Remnants of dock pilings remain at the site to this day.

1958    Electricity established more generally on North Pender Island

            Dismantling of Alexander Hamilton house, "The Knolls", built in 1900 at Port Browning

            Portland Island is gifted to Princess Margaret during one of her royal visits.

            Premier W.A.C. Bennett announces on July 18 that the British Columbia Ferry Authority would take over the madate of providing passenger and car ferry service In B.C.

            Raffle of a patchwork quilt to raise money for publishing a book of memoirs of early residents entitled "A Gulf Islands Patchwork".  The raffled quilt is subsequently returned to the Museum Society in 1991. 

1957 and 1958    The first professional archeological excavation is carried out at the Canal by the BC Provincial Museum who sunk two test pits on the principal middens north and south of the bridge.

1956    After 50 years of Corbett operation, Percy Corbett, son of R.S.W., retires from operating Hope Bay Store and sells it to Ralph Smith and Norm Miller.  Percy remains Postmaster until 1961.

            Lyall Brackett, youngest son, starts to tear down the Alexander and Margaret Brackett pioneer house

            The ship "Cy Peck" is converted to carry motor cars

            Cecily Reynolds unearths cannon ball fired from a smooth barrelled 68 pounder cannon of the Royal Navy sometime in the last half of the 19th century.  The cannon ball is on display at the Museum.

1955    BC Government subsidizes ferry service

            S.P. (Percy) Corbett sells Hope Bay Store

            Completion of Canal Road and official opening of the bridge over the canal on June 1st by dynamic Minister of Highways Phil Gaglardi.

            Pender Island Bridge built by Pacific Pile Driving Company owned by Tom Blackwood

            The Saltery in Hayashi Cove in Otter Bay is destroyed by fire

mid-'50's   Lilias Spalding house on South Pender razed, located at what is now Lilias Spalding Park

1954    Elizabeth Grimmer dies at Port Washington at age 76

1952    Waterlea ceases to be a resort and becomes a private residence once again

             W.A.C. Bennett, B.C.'s longest serving Premier, wins minority government in Victoria

            Ferry "Island Princess" is running between the mainland at Steveston and the Gulf Islands

1951    Lilias Spalding dies at 81

             Dr. Aldridge dies (see 1915).

            Port Browning Government wharf built (c 1951)

1950    Albert Hugh Menzies dies at age 93

            Gathering of Pender Island "Old-Timers", May 15 on Salt Spring Island

            A total of 17 cabins are summer rentals at Roesland and farming is discontinued

Late 1940's  "Andover" subdivision of South Pender on "Higgs Estate" by Craddock & Co., Exclusive Agents

1949    First Aboriginal elected to the B.C. Legislative Assembly

1948    Victor Menzies sells farm to Ashton Ross-Smith and retires to Howard Harris house at Hope Bay to live with Albert.  1896 farm house is left unoccupied for several years and demolished in 1988

            B.C.'s first sales tax enacted

            Enfranchisement of minorities

1947    Fish reduction plant re-opens at Shingle Bay

            In June the Grosvenor House Hotel at Port Washington is destroyed by fire

            Dave and Florence Davidson return to Roesland for a summer vacation

1946    Royal Canadian Legion Branch 239 (Pender Island) receives Dominion Command Charter.  Hall is located on MacKinnon Road west of ferry terminal.

WWI-WWll

1945    Mrs. Craddock sells Waterlea but it continues as a resort until 1952.

            The Pender Island Golf and Country Club is incorporated as a society.  With the exception of a brief hiatus during World War II, Pender Island Golf Course has run continuously. From the beginning, member volunteers have played a major part in the upkeep and development of this wonderful golf course, of which they are justifiably proud.

            World War II ends

1943    R.S.W. Corbett (Hope Bay Store) dies

            Pilot Officer Grover Sargent crashes Hawker Hurricane near Clam Bay Road on the afternoon of February 4th while undertaking training aerobatics.  A cairn was erected later in the year and was restored in 1997 by the Pender Island Branch of the Royal Canadian Legion.

1942    The Saltery in Hayashi Cove in Otter Bay is confiscated from the Japanese owners and operated during WWll as a cannery

            Florence and Dave Davidson, later to run and eventually own Roesland, are wed

1941    "Mille Fleurs" sold to Mr. and Mrs. Wallace Lynd and opened as Beautyrest Lodge the next year.  It was named after the mattresses with which it was equipped.

1940    Fish reduction plant at Shingle Bay closes due to a fire

            Florence Davidson visits Roesland

1939    Robert Roe Sr. dies on February 8 at age 86

            Canada enters World War II, Great Depression ends

1938    The Anglican Church of the Good Shepherd opens on South Pender as a non-denominational community church on land donated by the Richardsons

1937    Several Pender residents put up money to purchase a 60 acre parcel from George Grimmer (a son of Pender pioneer Washington Grimmer) for the Pender Island Golf and Country Club. These first individuals and many others took out memberships and worked hard to plan and develop the layout, and build the tees and greens.

1936    The Hope Bay Store is further enlarged to the rear using lumber salvaged from the dismantled Doukhobor settlement on Piers Island

1934    Annie Mary, wife of Spencer Percival dies at age 73 and interred at Pender Cemetary

1933    Store and Post Office open on South Pender

            Prohibition of alcoholic beverages is abandoned in the United States

1932    First Fall Fair held at the Hope Bay Community Hall

            Arthur Spalding dies at 69

            Mr. F. X. Hodgson opens a general store on the present site of Poets Cove Resort.  He later adds a few rental cabins and by 1935 was advertising his "Resort"

            Fish reduction plant at Shingle Bay declares bankruptcy but is reconstituted and under new management continues to operate until destroyed by fire in 1959

1931    The 11 Ladies of the Women's Missionary Society of the Pender Island United Church of Canada host a "wool teasing bee"

            Robert Stewart Wallace Corbett of the Hope Bay Store retires.  His son Percy takes over running the store and as Postmaster assisted by his son Stuart.  The store was sold in 1956.  Stuart remained Postmaster until 1961.

1930    Washington Grimmer dies close to age 80

            "The Maples" on Port Browning opened for guests operated by Mrs. Elisha Pollard until 1970 when guests were no longer accommodated in the main house

             The "Daily" is sold to the Gulf Island Ferry Co., rebuilt and converted to a Motor Vessel with a diesel engine and renamed "Cy Peck" after the father of Ed Peck, chairman of the Compensation Stabilization Program.  The boat is put on the Swartz Bay-Saltspring Island run.

             During the Depression, guests at Roesland Farm Resort dwindle, sometimes to only the Davidsons in some years.  Owners Robert and Margaret Roe are land rich, but really poor financially during this time.  Farm operations were important in surviving the Depression.

             c. 1930:  Warburton Pike's house on Saturna Island on the site of the current Thomson Park, is destroyed by fire.

1929    Herring saltery plant built at Otter Bay (Hayashi Cove) by the British Columbia Fish Salteries Ltd. controlled by the Matsuyama Co., a Japanese interest.  Herring is packed in boxes of salt and shipped to the Far East.

            Alexander Brackett dies of "black lung" disease caused by the rock dust he had worked in for a great part of his life.

            Peter Huffman, owner of an 80 acre farm property located near Roe Lake, dies.  See description in the 2014 Museum calendar, month of December.

            The stock market crashes leading to the Great Depression of the 1930's

             Andreas Stihl patents first gas-powered hand held mobile chain saw for wood

1928    "Beautyrest Lodge" or "Mille Fleurs" built as a private residence for Maj. Boyer

            The Hope bay Store is modernized with an electric plant, frigidaire and ice cream cabinet

1927    Robert Roe Jr. (Bert) weds 31 year old Irene Burnes, a former guest of Roesland, and builds a house of his own at Roesland.  The front portion was fitted out as a store for the convenience of the resort patrons in the summer and for commercial fishermen in the winter.

             Major General Frank Sutton, known as "one arm Sutton" buys Portland Island with gambling proceeds and dreams of raising and training thoroughbred horses as well as building a hotel and summer cottages and even a golf course.  The stock market crash of 1929 ended his dream.

1926    School opens on South Pender

            Fish Reduction Plant reactivated at Shingle Bay (Pender Island Fish Products of Victoria) for lubricating oil, fertilizer and fish meal (previously Shingle Bay had a small cedar shingle enterprise).  Plant was built in the early 1920's then shut down for a few years.

           Dave Davidson makes his first visit to Roesland at age six, and is met by Robert Roe Sr. in his launch

mid-20's  The Coast Shale Company brick factory at Bricky Bay demolished

1925    With the Act of Union between the Presbyterian and Methodist Churches the congregation of the Presbyterian church at Hope Bay vote to join the United Church of Canada

1924    Mrs. and Mrs. Spencer Percival host tennis garden party and "cup" is presented to winner of matches

            The Grosvenor House Hotel is built by the Logan family directly across from the General Store at Port Washington.  It operated as a hotel for 27 years. (built 1920?)

1923    The Federal Government prohibits Chinese immigration

1922    Miss Vivienne Geldart arrives as the second school teacher and marries Victor the next year.

1921    Manse built at Hope Bay

            B.C. Government Liquor Stores open, 62 years later government liquor store opens at the Driftwood Centre (1983)

            John Blake Bridge becomes Postmaster at Port Washington

1920    Harris family leaves Pender and Albert Menzies retires to Howard Harris house at Hope Bay.  For 10 years son Victor leases then purchases the farm named "Valley Home Farm" (1921)

            Coast Shale Company brick factory at Bricky Bay closed and placed under caretaker status until demolished in the mid-1920's

            Prohibition of alcoholic beverages is introduced in the United States

1920's  The Canadian Pacific Steamship (CPSS) line begins regular service to the Gulf Islands, featuring the S.S. Princess Mary.

             Robert Roe's youngest son, Robert (Bert) Roe is a partner in the operation of the farm and developing cabin resort at Roesland.

1919    First cottage, built in 1910, rented at Roesland to the Gordon Gray family of Vancouver

            Arthur Spalding sights a plane flying over his farm on South Pender for the first time on May 12th.

1918    John M. MacDonald dies at age 74 and interred at Pender Cemetary, wife Jessie lives on to 1953 and 93 years of age

            Waterlea purchased by Capt. John Muus and his daughter and son-in-law, Mr. and Mrs. A.E. Craddock

            The ship "Daily" purchased by the Canadian Pacific Steamship Lines, refitted, re-named the "Cy Peck" and put on the Nanaimo-Victoria-Gulf Islands route until

1917    First planned subdivision registered by John MacKinnon on land purchased from Mr. Hayashi

            Women get to vote in provincial elections for the first time

            George Roe, son of Robert Roe, at age 35 leaves Pender Island with his family for Thetis Island after land trouble with his father, Robert Sr.  They remain there until 1923.  George had been making payments to his father for one third of the property, or 200 acres.  When it came time to claim his share, all the property was in his father's name.  George had to take his father to court and ended up with only the 20 acres he had cleared and built a house on.  About this time, William, another son, also has difficulties with his father over joint ownership and/or an agreement to purchase 200 acres from his father on which he wanted to settle and build a gas station and marina.  William finds out the property is in his fathers name, not jointly held, and William is also denied his claim to land by his father.  William also takes his father to court, but Robert Sr. has signed the property over to the lawyers and William is unsuccessful in gaining his share.

            Prohibition begins by referendum

1916    The Canadian government Department of Indian Affairs outlaws reef nets used by the Salish Nation for centuries, yet allows J.H. Todd and Sons to use nets fixed to the sea bed similar to native reef nets.  Todd and Sons continued this practice from 1916 until the mid-1940's when B.C. Packers bought them out and discontinued it.

1915-16  Major snowfall on the island

1915    St. Peter's Anglican Church built on Port Washington Road on an acre of land donated by Spencer Percival with the first service held in July

            Hugh Hamilton enlarges house at Port Browning after marriage

            Godfrey Walker of South Pender killed in action (WWl), survived by brother Wilfred

             Dr. Aldridge, a retired physician, arrives on Pender and purchases the parcel of land that stretched from the Canal and Shark's Cove to the junction of Canal Road with Aldridge Road.  This included the properties that now contain the school, medical centre and Plum Tree Court.

             Parliament Building additions completed in Victoria

Pre-WWl

1914    From a total population of just over 200, 60 Pender Islanders served in the First World War.  Ten did not return, including William Ross Brackett who died of battle wounds on August 19, 1917.

            Spencer Percival resumes Postmaster duties at Port Washington

            S.S. Queen City takes over ferry service from Sidney.  The service is not as regular as the Iroquois had been.

1913    First woman runs for public office on Pender, Jeannie Hamilton for school trustee and loses to bachelor Elijah Pollard

            Rutherford Hope dies on the 14th of July

            The ship "Daily", later the ferry "Cy Peck" is built by Matthew McDowell in Seattle, WA for service between Seattle and Tacoma.

             Chas A. Gaunt becomes Postmaster at Port Washington 

1912    Coast Shale Brick Company opens brick factory on 50 acres (now Bricky Bay) employing 75 men using stiff mud Cretaceous clay and oil-fired scove kilns

            Schoolhouse is raised by a brick foundation to add lower level services and storage

            Third Post Office established at Port Washington with Spencer Percival as postmaster.  Postal Address:  Port Washington BC

            A larger, more imposing second Hope Bay Store and two small warehouses are built at Port Washington by R.S.W. Corbett

            The Port Washington Community Hall is built on leased land at the corner of Port Washington Road and Otter Bay Road, to be demolished in 1977 as the lease drew to a close

            "The Maples" built for Elijah Pollard on the shore of Port Browning which with the addition of three rustic cabins in the 1920's operated as a summer resort until the 1970's

            Julie Roache, wife of Lawrence Auchterlonie dies at age 59 and interred at Pender Cemetery

            February 6, George Roe, one of three Roe sons marries Myrtle Jenkins/Beddis. They have two daughters, one born in December of this year and the second in December 1914, both on Pender

            Canadian Northern Pacific railway inaugurates a new Gulf Island ferry service from Sidney, with steamer S.S. Joan

1911    The Coast Shale Brick Co. purchases 50 acres at what is now Bricky Bay and subsequently employs up to 75 men who are accommodated on site.  Bricks remain embedded in the beach to this day.

            S.S. Iroquois sinks in squall off Sidney with the drowning of 21 including school teacher Fanny Hooson, 38, (ne Lawson), her 3 year old son and several new workers for Coast Shale Brick Factory.  Capsizing three years earlier should have been a warning of sea unworthyness.

            First telephone service to the Penders

            Washington Grimmer, age 60, divides his farm among his children

            Lyall Thatcher Brackett, child number seven and the last of the Brackett kids born on Pender, March 28th.  Grandma Brackett was 52 when she had this last baby.

1910    Port Washington Store opened by Spencer Percival.  He and successive owners Jack Bridge and Wally Cunliffe continue to host a jovial evening just before Christmas featuring a modified bicycle wheel fashioned into a "Wheel of Fortune" roulette draw for bags of groceries.  This practice continues until 1965.  The wheel is on display at the Museum.

            Community Hall built at Hope Bay overlooking the Corbett Store

            "Waterlea" built by John MacKinnon at the west end of what is now MacKinnon Road

            Fred Smith comes to Pender and after WWl bought acreage at Welcome Bay and married eldest daughter of Alexander Hamilton

            Hugh Hamilton house built at the end of Port Browning (still standing)

            Winifred and Ralph Grey and family leave Samuel Island for Victoria on May 4th.

1909    Hope Bay Community Hall built (early 1910?).  The Hall was dismantled in 1967.

1908    Wilfred and Godfrey Walker arrive from England to South Pender and in 1909 purchase land on Plumper Sound and build cabin a year later (still standing)

            S.S. Iroquois capsizes at Nanaimo, is righted and put back into service

            Robert Sr. builds a house (now the Pender Island Museum) at Roesland for a material cost of $538.66

1907    The Kanaka (Hawaiians) leave their dwellings on Portland Island

1906    First wedding on Pender, Howard Harris and Clara Menzies, build home at Hope Bay

            Early in the year the present Presbyterian Church is built under contract priced at one-thousand dollars by Mr. H.B. Harris who sawed the lumber in his own mill at Hope Bay.  Mr. Harris sublet the erection to Mr. John Irwin of Victoria, but much of the labour and material was donated.  A substantial shed was later built behind the church.

1905   Robert Roe Sr. buys 800 acres on the south side of Otter Bay and clear about 30 acres subsequently calling it "Roesland Farm". The Roe property eventually stretches all the way to Shingle Bay and includes Roe Lake.  Robert Sr. subsequently sells 200 acres to help finance the Roesland Farm and to bring to Pender his wife Margaret and his son William's wife.

            Cemetery established and first burial on one acre of land donated by Rutherford Hope

            Presbyterian Church appoints its first ordained minister, Rev. James Millan, land for a church donated by James Auchterlonie and cleared by volunteer labour

            John MacKinnon purchases 160 acres from Mr. S. Hayashi (now MacKinnon Road area)

            R.S.W. Corbett opens Post Office and first general store at Hope Bay and continues in business for the next 50 years

            Naval survey ship H.M.S. Egeria lands a party of seamen to record the hourly rise and fall of the tide below a benchmark carved in the cliff face located just north of what is now the lower swimming pool at Poets Cove Resort

            Stanley and Howard Harris relocate sawmill from Shingle Bay to Hope Bay

1904    Second Post Office established at Bedwell Harbour.  Postal Address:  South Pender Island

1903    Excavation of canal isthmus (referred to by First Nations and early settlers as "the portage") is completed by the Federal Government to accommodate first regular ferry service from Sidney by the vessel Iroquois.  Pender Island is thus physically separated by the new canal until a bridge is opened in 1955. 

            R.S.W. Corbett, from Springfield Manitoba, opens first store at Hope Bay, operated by R.S.W., his son Percy and grandson Stuart for over 50 years

            Post Office moved into new Hope Bay Store

            Washington Grimmer sells their house and 160 acres at Port Washington to Spencer Percival who calls it "Sunny Side Ranch" (now Old Orchard Farm) (1902?)

             Brackett barn on Razor Point Road is built (still standing).

             A regular Post Office opens in the shed at the Bedwell Harbour wharf.  Mrs. Lilias M. H. Spalding did the postal duties for 43 years until she retired.  Six Postmasters followed in her steps until the South Pender Post Office closed on July 7, 1970

             First B.C. Provincial Election involving political parties

1902    In the midst of considerable community controversy, Robert Roe Sr. purchases former school and adjacent community hall on Port Washington Road.  His wife Margaret and three children (four?, may have been a daughter as well, Margaret Henderson Roe), George, William and Robert Jr. may have remained in Victoria awhile longer before coming to Pender.

            The Harris brothers Stanley and Howard arrive on Pender and establish a sawmill at Shingle Bay which was moved to Hope Bay in 1905.  They were active members of the church and had a small steam launch named Pearl in which local folk were occasionally taken on outings.  Fuel for steam was from wood and bark gathered from the beach.

            School, now called "the old school" is built by David Menzies and a Mr. Ward near Hope Bay (now the Nu-To-Yu) on land donated by James Auchterlonie

            R.S.W. and Isabella Corbett and children purchase160 acres near Hope Bay from Albert Menzies and build house (still standing on Corbett Rd.)

            Brackett barn on Razor Point Road built (c 1901 or 03), now partially dismantled due to instability

            First power boat on the island, 30 foot steam launch "Pearl" belonging to the newly arrived Harris brothers Howard and Stanley at Shingle Bay sawmill

            Disposal of first Pender Island Community Hall located midway between Port Washington and Hope Bay

1901    Government wharves built at Hope Bay and Bedwell Harbour

            At Bedwell Harbour, a wharf with a small shed served as the South Pender Island Post Office.  No regular Post Office existed so the mail bag was just dropped off on the wharf.

            Canal excavation between North and South Pender started after a petition to the province to facilitate navigation

            Post Office relocated from Port Washington to shed at Hope Bay.  Postmaster was James Auchterlonie

            3-D stereoscopic photograph viewer patented

1900    Privately owned S.S. Iroquois launched and begins ferry service to Pender Island

            Alexander Hamilton builds house "The Knolls" at Port Browning

            Victor Menzies joins the Presbyterian Church congregation at age 16 "on profession of Faith"

            July 7th, Winifred Higgs marries Ralph Grey at Harold Payne's place on Saturna Island and move to Samuel Island

c1900  Elijah Pollard gives up Tilley Point and buys 70 acres on Port Browning later (1912) opening a home resort "The Maples" to supplement farm income

 

Pioneers

1899    Rutherford Hope marries Jennie Reid on the 4th of July

            Pender's Farmers Institute created, the first island-wide organization

1898    Great fire in New Westminster, Alexander Hamilton and Brackett families move to Pender full time as a result.

            Olive S.J. Grimmer is born on on September 16th.

            A period of provincial political instability

            Klondike gold rush begins

1897    Leonard Higgs' sisters, Winifred and Mabel return to the Higgs property on South Pender, to their new home called "Blue Tarpon" or "Blue" construction of which was overseen by Leonard during the preceding winter.

            New Parliament Buildings in Victoria completed

1896    Hope Bay quarry owner Evan Hooson marries Frances "Fanny" Lawson, the first school teacher on Pender.  Fanny resigns her post as teacher.

            Albert Menzies leases and later buys the Rutherford Hope farm (now the Ross-Smith farm), builds farm house

            Rutherford Hope retains a few acres near present Firehall/Police Station for retirement "across the Government Road" which was at that time the present access road to the Cemetery.

            Robert Roe Senior, wife Margaret and their children, George, age 15, William and Robert Jr. (Bert), and possibly a sister, Margaret come to Canada from Port Glasgow, Scotland via Cape Horn.  A few years are spent in Victoria, B.C. before arriving on Pender.

            Irene Roe, nee Burnes, future wife of Robert Roe Jr. is born

            Twenty-five year old Winifred and her sister Mabel Higgs come to South Pender from England in June to visit their brother and sister-in-law Leonard and Emma Higgs at Kloshie Illahee for the summer.  Their experiences are documented in the book "Winifred Grey" edited by Marie Elliott in 1994.

            School building constructed beside the Community Hall on Port Washington Road near the present lumberyard with backing of Washington Grimmer

1895    Mr. Hayashi purchases 160 acres extending from present Otter Bay Marina in Hayashi Cove to James Point at the end of what is now MacKinnon Road from Washington Grimmer

            John MacDonald builds house (still standing) on 22 acres between current Nu-To-Yu and Police Station aquired from James Auchterlonie

            Gilbert Ainslie for which Ainslie Road is named, emigrates to Canada from England

            J. Alexander Brackett comes to Pender from New Westminster to help Hugh Hamilton build his house at the head of Port Browning and purchases a small parcel of land from the Hamiltons and a larger parcel from Rutherford Hope located opposite the present Driftwood Centre.

            Portlock Point light station on Prevost Island just across the channel from Port Washington, is constructed

            Japanese are disenfranchised

1894    John M. MacDonald, brother of Mrs. Albert Menzies, and his wife Jessie and five children arrive on North Pender

            First school and three member school board elected on the island, with 11 pupils that year with class in the Community Hall near current lumberyard with Fanny Lawson as teacher who boards with the Davidson's of Clam Bay until marrying Evan Hooson.  A small separate building is erected close by the hall for the exclusive use of the school.

            The work of the Presbyterian Church begins in the early part of the year at the request of Mr. A.H. Menzies.  His younger brother George was a student of the Ministry at the time and built comfortable slotted benches for use in the old hall where services were held

            Leonard Higgs sells property to Arthur E. Stanford, and call his new ranch "Southlands"

            Elija Pollard arrives with A.E. Stanford and both pre-empt land on South Pender, Elija's on Tilley Point.

            George W. Grimmer is born on April 5th

1893    Washington Grimmer, James Auchterlonie and Andrew Davidson apply to Victoria for a teacher for the eight children of school age on the island.  The first classes are held in the community hall

            Albert Hugh Menzies, wife Henrietta and children, 7 year old Victor was a one of them, arrive on Pender via steamer Yosemite to work for Washington Grimmer for three years in exchange for $200. a year in cash and $250. dollars a year in land at $5. an acre for a total of 180 acres.

            Construction of the Parliament Buildings started in Victoria

1892    Andrew Angus Davidson with his wife Margaret and four children arrives on North Pender via South America and buy 300 acres at Clam Bay from Washington Grimmer

            James Auchterlonie takes over management of David Hope farm at Hope Bay and subsequently builds house at the corner of Port Washington Road and Clam Bay Road

            Leonard Higgs' wife Emma and son Tom join him on South Pender from England

1891    First Government wharf built at Port Washington

            Washington Grimmer builds house at Sunnyside Farm what is now known as the Old Orchard Farm in Port Washington

            Percy Grimmer is born on the 21st of October

            Post office established in Washington Grimmer's home at Port Washington, Washington Grimmer Postmaster.  Postal Address:  Pender Island BC.  He first brought the mail in a rowboat from Mayne Island.

            Lawrence Auchterlonie builds house on Hooson Road for himself and second wife Julie Roach, married on November 19th

1890    First BC born settlers on Pender, brothers Robert and Sweany Colston, take land at Hope Bay

            Alexander and Margaret Brackett pre-empt 160 acres next to the Hamilton property on Port Browning (c 1890)

            First horse brought to Pender by Alexander Hamilton

1889    First Community Hall built midway between Port Washington and Hope Bay on Grimmer property at the site of the present gravel pit

            Neptune "Nep" Grimmer born in rowboat enroute to midwife on Mayne island on the 11th of April

            Arthur Spalding marries Lilias Mackay, daughter of an Hudson's Bay Factor, on Saturna Island.  Both were conveyed back to their home on South Pender by dugout canoe paddled by two natives.  Lilias was dressed in her white satin wedding gown.

1888    Englishmen William and 27 yr old son Evan Hooson arrive and aquire land from the Auchterlonies along what is now Hooson Road south of Hope Bay and being stonemasons open a quarry at Hope Bay as well as a forge

            Hugh Hamilton age 19, younger brother of Alexander who inheirited older brother Robert's land two years earlier, comes to Pender from Scotland and with his friend John Liddle, works on brother Alexander's land until building his own house in 1910

            Lawrence Auchterlonie marries Julie Roach in 1891 after the death of his first wife Helen, sister of David Hope this year

1886    First permanent settler on S. Pender, 23 year old Englishman Arthur Reed Spalding purchases 800 acre John Tod and absentee owner James Alexander property

            Leonard Higgs, step-nephew of Arthur Spalding, arrives then leaves to return in 1891 to take up land and build his house "Kloshie Illahee" (the Good Land in the Chinook language, which is rapidly disappearing by this time)

            First white child born on Pender, Nellie Grimmer on September 24th.

            Robert Hamilton and his wife Isabella join younger brother Alexander and pre-empt the waterfront land where Port Browning Marine Pub and Resort is now located, which was previously "Reserved for Government Use".  Both he and his wife die tragically a few months later and will their pre-exemption to younger brother Hugh.

            First transcontinental train arrives in Vancouver

1885    Washington Grimmer marries Elizabeth Auchterlonie on the 18th of November

            Alexander Hamilton pre-empts 180 acres at the head (west) end of Browning Harbour where the Driftwood Centre and the airfield are located after being sent by Mortimer's Monumental Works of Victoria to work at a quarry located at the site of the present canal

            Evan Hoosen emigrates to Canada from England

1884    Survey officer Lieut. Daniel Pender, R.N. retires (dies in 1891) after whom Pender Island is named

             The Canadian government makes potlatching illegal from 1884 until 1951, but never successfully eliminates the tradition.

1883     Mrs. Potts patents stovetop "sad irons" with removable wooden handles.  Millions are sold.

1882    Grimmer brothers Oliver and Washington arrive and purchase 840 acre Noah Buckley property

            Washington Grimmer becomes North Pender's first postmaster in his home post office

            Lawrence Auchterlonie and wife Helen with 15 yr. old son James and daughter Elizabeth arrive and with Rutherford Hope divide David Hope property, Rutherford takes Ross-Smith portion, ie. from the present community hall to Port Browning

            George Roe, son of Robert and Margaret Roe, is born in Port Glasgow Scotland on the 15th of June

1880    Province surveys North and South Pender into quarter sections

            Permanent native fishing settlement at Hay Point, entrance to Bedwell Harbour, now 3.20 ha Tseycum Band (166 members) Reserve No. 8

1879    John Tod land sold to James Alexander on South Pender

            David Hope dies in hunting accident and younger brother Rutherford Hope and his sister Mrs. Lawrence (Helen) Auchterlonie inherit his land (1881?)

1877    Thomas Edison invents the phonograph

            Washington Grimmer emigrates to Canada from England

1876    Rutherford Hope emigrates to Canada to join his older brother David on Pender and begins development of what is now known as the Ross-Smith Farm

1874    Aboriginals and Chinese excluded from provincial vote

            Clam Bay Farm established

1873    Fanny Hoosen, nee Lawson is born on the 8th of January

1872    David Hope and Noah Buckley come to Pender and each pre-empt 160 acres on NW end of "Northern Pender Island"

            On October 21, an arbitration committee in Geneva sides with the Americans and decrees the boundary between the U.S. and Canada be drawn down Haro Strait, not Rosario Strait as preferred by the British.  On November 25th the British Forces stationed on San Juan Island withdraw.

1871    Colony of British Columbia becomes the sixth province of Canada

            John Tod pre-empts land on "Southern Pender Island"

Explorers

1869    Elizabeth Grimmer nee Auchterlonie is born in England on the 13th of February

1868    Captain George Richards renames Pender Island, Port Browning and
            Bedwell Harbour

            Victoria declared the capital of British Columbia

1867    James Auchterlonie born on the 11th of January

            Dominion of Canada created on July 1

1866   The Colony of Vancouver Island and the inland Colony of New Caledonia merge to become the Colony of British Columbia

1865    Captain George Henry Richards corrects the name of "Gulf" to Straight of Georgia

1863    Murder of an American, William Brady, and gunshot injury of his companion John Henley, part Cherokee, by five Quamichan at Shark Cove, on April 4th.  Shark Cove was at the south end of the exacavated canal between North and South Pender.

            On April 20, a British naval gunboat fires on a Native village on Kuper Island.  The naval officers believed that the village harboured the individuals involved in the Shark Cove murder and attempted murder.  The British were defeated and frustratedly responded with military operations "the war of 1863" against various Native groups in an attempt to rid the area of "criminals".

1862   Great smallpox epidemic among First Nations

c1860  Much of the Spalding Valley on South Pender is granted to John Tod

1859    Washington Grimmer is born in England on the 24th of July

              Capt. G. H. Richards of the HMS Plumper names Portland Island, south west of Pender Island, after the flagship of the Rear Admiral Fairfax Moresby, the HMS Portland.  The island then falls into the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company who soon gave it to some of their workers, the same industrious Kanakas (Hawaiians) who settled on Saltspring and Russell islands.  Some of the trees they planted still bear fruit today.

1858    Queen Victoria names crown colony of British Columbia, created on the mainland

             Gold discovered in the interior Cariboo region.  Fraser River gold rush begins.

1857    In November, Captain George Henry Richards R.N. begins survey of the Straight of Georgia in the H.M.S. Plumper and names several geographic features

1856    First House of Assembly elected in Victoria

1854    Robert Roe Sr. born on the 4th of June

1852-1854    Douglas Treaties purchase lands from First Nations tribes (James Douglas was Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island).  The Tsawout, Tsartlip, Pauquachin and Tseycum First Nations (aka "the salt water people" or Sencot'en) have land and harvesting rights to Pender under the 1852 Douglas Treaty.

1852    Margaret Roe, nee Burnes, is born on the 12th of July in Scotland

1850    First Aboriginal Land Treaties signed

1849    Pender Island becomes part of Colony of Vancouver Island with Victoria as the capital

1848    California Gold Rush begins

1847    Thomas Edison, inventor of the phonograph, born.  Edison's father was a Canadian.

1846   The Oregon Treaty divides British and American sovereignty along the 49th parallel except for Pt. Roberts, S. Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands.  It was still not  clear whether the boundary should be drawn down Haro Strait or Rosario Strait, placing the San Juan Islands in an unresolved position until the Pig War resulted in the border line being drawn down the Haro Strait.  See  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pig_War for more information.  

            The division of Canada and the US leads to the Salish Nation, based on the Saanich Penninsula, losing it's freedom to fish in all of their traditional territory which included the San Juan Islands.

1843    Rutherford Hope after which Hope Bay is named, is born on January 24th.

            In order to protect it's northern holdings from the Americans, Fort Victoria established under auspices of Hudson's Bay representative James Douglas on the prime anchorage of the Inner Harbour at what is now Bastion Square

1835    S.S. Beaver arrives on the West Coast from England, built for the Hudson's Bay Company.  She served frequently as a floating fur trading post and was chartered to the Royal Navy to continue the survey of the coast when Captain Richards returned to England in 1863.  Under the command of Master Daniel Pender she continued this work untio 1870.

1795    British Royal Navy Captain George Vancouver negotiates title to Vancouver Island from the Spanish who considered it low value wilderness

1792    Captain George Vancouver misnames the Straight of Georgia the "Gulf" of Georgia and establishes British jurisdiction of the region

1791    Spanish expedition led by Francisco de Eliza chart the Gulf Islands in their vessels the 45 foot topsail schooner Santa Saturnina under the command of second pilot Jose Marie Narvaez and the 85 foot San Carlos, and name Pender "Ysla de San Eusevio" after the 31st pope of 309 AD.  Saturna island is named after the San Saturnina and Narvaez Bay after her captain.

1770's  Smallpox kills at least 30% of Pacific Northwest First Nations

1670  The British Crown gives the Hudson's Bay Company a Royal Charter, which ultimately leads to it assuming de facto control over all of what is now Western Canada.

1592  Juan de Fuca, a Greek employee of the Spanish, blundered into the strait named after him.  His Greek name was Apostolos Valerianos.

1579   British explorer and privateer Sir Francis Drake may have entered the Straight of Georgia marking the first face to face contact between Europeans and Northwest Coast people.

1513    More than 500 years ago Vasco Nunez de Balboa claims the Pacific coast for Spain

1492  Christopher Columbus visits North America.

First Nations and Pre-history

800 to 200 years ago the tradition of above ground tree burials and box burials develops.  Unmarked in ground and shell midden interments continue.  Differences in burial type mark differences in social position.

1,200 years ago the widespread presence of defensive sites and fortifications indicates an increase in inter-tribal warfare within Coast Salish territory.

1,400 to 800 years ago social class distinctions are apparent in the elaborate earthen mound and stone cairn burials in the Gulf of Georgia region.

2,500 years ago the local abundance of yellow and red cedar is similar to that of today.

c. 5000 years ago first evidence of Coast Salish people on the Pender Islands according to artifacts found at Pender Canal excavation sites.  The Salish Nation probably existed in the region much earlier and was centered on the Saanich Penninsula.  The Salish called the Penders "S,dayes," which means "wind drying", referring to drying salmon.

5,500 to 5,000 years ago the sea level and the climate reach their modern position and stabilize.  Salmon runs increase significantly in magnitude providing an abundant and reliable source of food for ancestral Salish people.  Aboriginal society is verging on the development of complex social structures.  The domestic Coast Salish woolly dog, raised for it's sheeplike fur, appears in the archaeological record of this time.

6,800 years ago Mount Hood erupts blanketing the Northwest Coast in a thick layer of volcanic ash.

10,000 to 8,000 years ago the Fraser Glaciation comes to a close.  Aboriginal people leave the first lasting traces of their occupation at sites in the lower Fraser River canyon and the Lower Mainland.  The local climate becomes significantly warmer and dryer than it is today.

12,500 years ago melting glaciers separate into valley ice flows and pine, hemlock and alder begin growing in the otherwise barren landscape.  The sea level is about 160 meters above where it is today.  The climate is colder and wetter than at present.

15,000 years ago our region is under as much as 1600 meters of glacial ice with only the mountain peaks showing above the ice.  The sea level is as much as 200 meters above what it is today.